Shi'a
à Followers of Muhammad’s son-in-law and cousin ALI à Believed to be the successor of the caliphate (an Islamic state led by supreme religious or political leader)
à Based on the Quran
à In contrast to other Muslims à Shi’a believe only God has the right to choose a representative to safeguard Islam, the Quran and Sharia (moral and religious law)
à They Believe Ali is divinely appointed
Modern Shi’a Islam has been divided into three main groups: Twelvers, Ismailis and Zaidis
à Iraq is their theological center
à Lebanon is Shi’a strong hold
à Shi’a Muslims are in the majority in Iran, Iraq, Bahrain, and Azerbaijan and according to some estimates Yemen
à The battle of Karbala is one of the most significant events in Shi’a history from which Shi’a Islam draws its strong theme of martyrdom.

The Battle of Karbala:
à Small group supporters and relatives of Muhammad’s grandson Hussein and a much larger military detachment from Umayyad Caliph à who Hussein refused to recognize
à All soldiers and Hussein were killed à including his six-month old son, and all women and children were taken prisoner à the people who died are seen as martyrs
à this event is commemorated during an annual 10-day period held every Muharram (first month in the Islamic calendar) by the Shi’a


Sunni
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Druze

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Maronite
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Orthodox Christian
· Nature
o Unchanged from the first churches founded after Jesus' resurrection
o One of the tasks of the early Church was defin­ing, and defending, orthodox theology against the battering waves of heresies
o Built on the foundation of Christ and His Apostles, nothing has been added to our faith, and nothing can be added. It is complete.
· Orthodox in Lebanon
o Christian Orthodox, second largest Christian denomination after Maronites.
o Greek Orthodox, denomination of Christianity, 6% total population
o Armenian Orthodox
o Syriac Orthodox
· Ethnic composition, Armenian 6.8% of pop.
o Religious composition Greek Orthodox 6%​


Catholic

Christianity in Lebanon
  • Small community called the Maronites, located along the coast of Lebanon, separated from the rest of the country by mountains
  • Tight knit community
  • Good at defending themselves
  • Sea-men and merchants, retained ties with other parts of the Christian world
  • With colonization, were seen as allies by the French
  • Given French posts and education
  • Slowly gained more and more political power
  • In 1932, a consensus was past detailing the ratio of Christians to Muslims to be 6:5, allowing them to justify their over representation in politics
  • Opposed the protection of Palestinians
  • Gained even more power in 1943, where it was made so that only a Maronite could be president

  • The Christian Community in Lebanon was revived by the arrival of the Europeans as they were regarded as natural allies
  • Biblical scriptures tell stories of Jesus healing people in Lebanon
  • Pope John Paul II presented a 41,000 word document dedicated to Lebanon to “ponder reconstruction in the wake of the country’s civil war”
  • The Christian Groups came together to form the Lebanese Front
  • Christian Militia à South Lebanon Army
  • o Mainly under control of Israel

  • Revived when the Europeans came because the regarded them as a natural ally.
  • They believe in the
  • Pope
  • Apostles
  • 7 Sacraments
  • Bible
  • Ten commandments
  • Jesus cured a lot of people on his trip to Lebanon
  • The holy trinity – god father. God the son, god the holy spirit
  • People born with the original sin
  • Catholics make up around one-quarter of the national population of four million in Lebanon
  • The word catholic means “universal”. throughout the Middle Ages, if you were a Christian, you belonged to the Catholic Church