This section deals with the impact of the First World War upon the Middle East and examines the significance of the Arab revolt militarily and politically as well as the effects of Allied diplomacy on the region’s development. The unit requires consideration of post-war territorial and political rearrangements in the region, whether in the form of mandates or the establishment of independent states, as well as the emergence of movements for national regeneration. The question of the Palestine Mandate, including British administration and policies and the origins and development of the Arab–Jewish dispute up to 1948, is a particular area of focus.

  • Allied diplomacy and its impact in the Middle East; MacMahon–Hussein Correspondence; Sykes–Picot Agreement 1916; Arab Revolt 1916; Balfour Declaration 1917
  • Paris Peace Settlement: territorial and political impact on the region; the mandate system: British and French administration in Iraq, Transjordan, Syria and Lebanon
  • Establishment and operation of the Palestine Mandate until 1948: economic, social and political developments; increased Jewish immigration; agreements/policies: Hope Simpson Report, Peel Commission, White Papers
  • Post-Second World War tensions: UNSCOP; creation of the state of Israel; War of Independence 1948‑9
  • Atatürk and the Turkish Republic: aims and policies 1919‑38; impact on Turkish society; successes and failures
  • Iran and Reza Khan 1924‑41: establishment and nature of the regime; attempts to modernize; Western influences
  • Saudi Arabia and Ibn Saud 1932‑1949: establishment and nature of the regime; role of religion in the state; economic and social policies

Hussein-McMahon Correspondence [transcripts]